Thursday, May 21, 2020
Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1859 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Linguistics Essay Type Essay any type Did you like this example? Discuss whether the use of English in non-ENL countries can be seen as a neutral, a harmful or a beneficial activity. English, which is often referred to as the language of the planet is spoken by more than 750 million people worldwide. This global phenomenon, if not spoken by millions as a mother tongue is spoken by many as a second language or taught in educational institutions as a foreign language. The diversity of its speakers has sparked considerable amount of interest, along with the types of English used in many countries. Alongside an immense number of speakers of a single language come the various types of speaker: those whos English is a mother tongue, those of whom whose English is a second language, and those for whom it is a foreign language. This analysis attempts to establish whether the use of English in non native speaking countries have adverse or positive effects. Only a few centuries ago did English exist as a form of dialects spoken by the lower middle classes in the province of Britain. Dominated by the prestige languages of Latin and French, the language of the pre-English period (-c AD 450) was Celtic, a language spoken by those living in Britain and surrounding areas. When the Romans first invaded Britain, a number of Celtic speaking peoples inhabited Britain, even though Latin was the official language of the province. According to the source Women in Roman Britain, By the end of the first century AD the increasingly cosmopolitan flavour of the urban population will have resulted in many languages being heard in Britain with the consequence that a knowledge of Latin would have been essential for efficient communication between people who could have originated as far afield as Scotland, Africa or Turkey (Allason-Jones, 1989, p174). Residents who would have migrated from such countries inevitably needed a mutual form of communication in order to keep activities such as trade going. During the pre-English period, the vast number of occurring mixed and interracial marriages would have resulted in the inevitable introduction of f oreign languages into Britain. This thus establishes Britain as a multilingual community, having contact with other parts of the world. Since Latin, a language which had been a lingua franca in Britain had by this time, been challenged by the increasing number of inhabitants speaking English, it had to leave in order to find a new position, since people were still using it but were also using Celtic. At this time, Latin, which wasnt an official language of Britain had now been established as a language of communication by those residing in England and those migrating to England, and was now seen as a useful source of promoting and providing the existence of beneficial activities such as administration and trade. The use of Latin had by then been the dominant language of government and administration. How the use of such a universal and phenomenal language such as English had been established can only be discovered if its origins are traced. The earliest piece of writing in English is said to be a carving found in Norwich dating from AD 400. This runic script is said to resemble the Latin or Greek alphabet, and was used in various Germanic languages, bought to England by those residing in mainland Europe. *The influence of Latin on the English Language is very high, even though Latin is a somewhat archaic language, only now taught in prestige schools such as Eton College. 1066 was a year of deterioration not just in terms of radical political changes but in major linguistics. Often viewed as a milestone on the road to civilization, it also played a major part in the development of Modern English. During this precarious time when the entire Normandy dynasty had been gained by the King of France, regular contacts with the French court bought with it colossal changes in the main method of communication. This conflict brought about a period of close contact and often bitter rivalry between the English and the French which in some respects has lasted into the present century. Ideas about Englishness often reflect whatever is considered to be not French (p121). The consequence of this invasion has caused the English Language to contain many derivations of French, referred to as the language of honour, chivalry and justice. During the period of the French invasion many English residents knew very little, if not, any of the English language. Other linguistic changes which inevitably rose as a result of the Norman Conquest concerned the language of Law. This would have been written in Britains prestigious language, Latin, which was at the time highly associated with the aristocracy. This resulted in English being a minority written language. Put in simpler terms, the Norman Conquest occurred at the detriment of the English Language used in Britain, which was almost reduced to a minor language or even a mere dialect spoken within England. Other effects of the Norman Conquest on the English Language included the voc abulary. Many French words were adopted into the English Language which explains the vast majority French lexicon in the English vocabulary we are used to today. Baldwin, who in his speech thinly veils his distaste for the French language adopted into English quoted (that the) salvation for Britain (and indeed for the whole world) lay not in French-derived polysyllables such as proletariat but in monosyllables such as faith. Hope love and work (Crowley, 1989 p255). Here, he not only (possibly subconsciously) describes English as being a somewhat simple and basic language, but he compares it to French, a language which exhibits power and prestige. In line with the effects of French lexicon within the English language, centurys later English provinces, namely Canada now have both English and French as an official language. The French language, in Quebec especially remains under threat, even though it is used to teach in schools its significance is deteriorating and the consta nt debate whether to use it in schools or whether English taught in schools can have detrimental effects; if students who are taught both languages becomes proficient in only one of the official languages, the quality of their written or spoken English or French is likely to decline. In France however, since English has no official status, it is exempt from the pressures Canada faces to exert the significance of learning both languages in schools. As French is taught as a foreign language in England, English is likewise taught as a foreign language in French schools, in order that no-one lacks the knowledge of a language vital for international communication, and therefore increase the number of people proficient in either official language. An example of the use of English in countries where English is not a native language being a beneficial, almost crucial activity lies within the necessities of air traffic control. Granted, there are many standard Englishs, each one being exclusive to its respective country, however if one peculiar, even creolized version remains misunderstood in such a situation, the results could be dire. In such circumstances, even though the existence of many standardized Englishs could create confusion, a vast knowledge of a universal Standard English is crucial. The development of English pidgins and creoles in effect also gives way to confusion as it clouds out the need for a politically correct language. The slave trade had an inevitably immense effect on the development of English, as it paved the way for the use of vernaculars such as Black English and black pidgins and creoles. These dialects, in effect are not understood by many and if such a language is seeped into schools it could become deeply ingrained within a students vocabulary, thus hindering a students ability to speak, and even understand politically correct English. It is thus necessary to question the term politically correct language? Double negatives to the native speaker of English, is seen almost as a taboo in English writing. Its use not only portrays the writer or speaker as uneducated, but the use of such insolent English by a native speaker would regard such a person as illiterate. Other definitions of political correctness refer to the use of non sexist or racist language, language used in such a way which is not seen to favour a certain age group, class distinction or creed. According to the English born sociolinguist Anthea Fraser Gupta, political correctness as exemplified by the deliberate use of non-sexist language is quite unusual. In fact, it is so rare that I and other colleagues have had the experience of having our non sexist original changed into a sexist printed version by editors. (Gupta, 1994, p2). For example, if an adult male calls another adult male boy because he is in a position of authority, this could be seen as highly demeaning, as this perfectly reflects the days of the slave tr ade when taskmasters referred to their slaves as boy, alongside other demeaning terms such as dog and nigger. When I asked a university student if being called boy by one who came from a country where such terms were unheard of, his reaction was one of dismay, not to mention being highly insulted. Such deviations from social norms could prove to cause conflict, as this type of English usage in countries such as Angola, France and similar non ENL lands may prove to be a difficulty. In countries such as China where English has no official status, there has been an increased amount of interest in the English Language. In 1959, everyone was carrying a book of the thoughts of Chairman Mao; today, everyone is carrying a book of elementary English (p31) This unprecedented growth in the interest of the English language in a country titled the undisputed home of technology, science and rapid invention makes it a harmful activity in terms of linguistics but a beneficial one in ter ms of world trade, production and communication. An influx Chinese people wanting to learn English poses the question: How good is the quality of English used in such non ENL countries? In the Chinese product catalogue IBI Household, the descriptions used to describe its respective goods in small captions are written in English which is considered to be very poor to ENL speakers; for example, a product called Space Creator, an organizer used to store household goods is said to be The plastic organizer will help you to storage wisely, instead of This plastic organizer will help you to store your items wisely; Another example being a Car Air Ozonizer which Remove smoke, eliminate air particulate from this compact air ozonizer. These items are described in a childlike manner, not to mention that they hardly make sense. As a result, if such habits become ingrained in an English learners vocabulary, they may become incomprehensible to someone whose first language is English bu t more importantly, it may become very difficult to root these habits out. This is thus an example of how the use of the English in non ENL countries can be seen as a harmful activity its only reason for its use is likely to be that of English is seen as fashionable. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "English Essay Example Pdf" essay for you Create order
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Gender Inequality and the Status of Women within Canada It was only after several years of working as an executive that I realized that I had been born with a natural aptitude for an executive role. Prior to this realization, I had perceived myself as someone who had Ã¢â¬ËflukedÃ¢â¬â¢ into the jobÃ¢â¬âit was my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s business and he had passed away, the company needed a president and I was executor of the estate. Despite the fact that I was asked to stay on as Marketing Director by the two lawyers who bought the company, I still failed to recognize that they retained me because I showed an aptitude for the role. My inability to see myself as a Ã¢â¬ËproperÃ¢â¬â¢ executive, along with the new ownersÃ¢â¬â¢ relegation of my desk to the common area with the female administrative assistants (despite incompatible tasks and responsibilities) and paternally condescending behaviour, point to endemic gender issues that are so embedded in Canadian culture that they are scarcely noticed by many of those entrenched; notably, both myself and my bosses were unaware that we were all participating in the subjugation of women. In my role, I was utilized for my Ã¢â¬ËmasculineÃ¢â¬â¢ skills without the compensation or basic working environment a male in the same position would receive, even with similar work experience. All parties felt that I was getting a generous opportunity, and unfortunately, in our current social landscape in Canada, despite an obvious lack of justice, this may, in fact, be true. This essay will exploreShow MoreRelatedDomestic Violence Against Immigrant And Refugee Women1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages4. How can Canada protect and welcome refugees and newcomers? How can domestic violence against immigrant and refugee women be prevented? Some of the ways Canada can protect and welcome and protect refugees by; Making the status in Canada secure- This means that Canada should make permanent residency open to all including migrant workers. They should not restrict the Permanent Residency to only those coming for high wage jobs. There should be a legislation and enforcement to protect them effectivelyRead MoreDiscrimination, Policies, And The Gender Wage Gap1088 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Discrimination, Policies, and The Gender Wage-Gap Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã For decades, the gender wage-gap has been an ongoing issue in Canada. Since then, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights have changed and allowed them to obtain career positions much like men. Although women have successfully fought for their rights, the issues of the gender wage gap, and sexist stereotypes continue in Canada. The Canadian Government needs to strengthen its discrimination policies so it can rectify and allow for equal opportunity, support parentalRead MoreThe Economic Status Of Older Women1326 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Economic Status Of Older Women In Canada Studies have shown economic disparities between married women, unmarried women, and those who are divorced or separated later in life. Each of these women will experience a different standard of living and financial well-being based on the circumstances of their life course (Davies Denton, 2002). In 2008 women living alone had the highest rate of low income with an after-tax poverty rate of 17%, while men had a 12% after-tax poverty rate (Milan VezinaRead MoreThe Poverty Of Older Women1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbetween unmarried women, women who are married, and those who are divorced or separated later in life. Each of these women will experience a different standard of living and financial well-being based on the circumstances of their life course. (193) In 2008 women living alone had the highest rate of low income with an after tax poverty rate of 18% for women and 12% for men. Studies show that separated and divorced women are the poorest of all older unattached women in Ca nada and the group thatRead MoreThe Impact Of Female Incomes On The Workplace1405 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesincome in Canada has been a fraction of their male counterpart. This social issue affects all females globally, despite occupation and education. 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As I was walking through the dark, shadowed streets of Legnago, I noticed something strange about the man standing against the wall. He was dressed in an all black doublet covered in gold embroidery partially hidden by his fur lined cloak. There was something odd yet so familiar about him but I just couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get my hand on it. We will write a custom essay sample on Original Writing Coursework on Prince Escalus or any similar topic only for you Order Now No matter how hard I tried the thought kept on eating away at me. I walked past him and recognized him as Frederick, one of the Partisans, our rival family for the past 10 years. It began with a little argument about who got the last piece of fruit from a vendor in the street. Over the years this developed into a feud with the several meetings that they had between them in the streets. Words were spoken, fists had been blazing with rage, but nothing had been done to stop this. He had a history of a hot-headed temper that no-one would have liked to set off so I carried on my journey home. I was nearly home when I heard a noise behind me. But it was only a strayed cat that had just knocked over the bin. Then I heard a different noise from behind but I ignored it that time. I had a feeling that I was being followed. Soon, I could hear footsteps which were rapidly increasing. In a matter of moments the person was on my heels. I turned around and saw that the mysterious person was Frederick. He had drawn his sword with a devilish grin on his face. I evaded his first attack and drew out my sword quick enough to parry the second. Some of his attacks tore my doublet and my shirt. Some were more serious and wounded me. I saw an opening in his attacks and struck him down to the ground. This was my opportunity to escape and I took it. Struggling to the door, with no strength left in me, I collapsed right at the doorstep. Luckily my parents were waiting for me to return and they heard the noise outside. They were shocked when they saw me and they helped me inside. First they got me fresh clothes and got me cleaned up before they said anything. Ã¢â¬Å"What happened to you?Ã¢â¬ said Lady Torrington. Then I explained to my parents how I saw one of the Partisans and how we fought each other until I fled. They were furious and they went on and on about how atrocious the Partisans were and how they had the nerve to attack their son. All I wanted was for the family feud to end so that our families could have peaceful and normal lives. I tried many times in the past to encourage them to stop this ridiculous feud. My parents loved me but sometimes I felt that they just ignored what I said. After a full night rest I regained my vigour, so I set out to see my friend Lucentio. Lucentio was a courteous, friendly and pleasant person, but his parents were a whole different story. They used to beat him and they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care for him at all. I was playing in the street when I saw him huddled up outside a shop. My first instinct was to just ignore him but my heart told me better. I walked up to him, asked him what was wrong and comforted him. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ve been friends ever since. He wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the sort of person that would get into fights. In fact, even if it had nothing to do with him he would try and stop it. On the way to his house, I saw a big crowd gathered together in the street and I was curious to see what it was about. I pushed and shoved my way through to the front of the crowd. The expression of my face went blank. My good friend Lucentio was lying on the hard, concrete ground desperately struggling for words. Ã¢â¬Å"Who did this to you LucentioÃ¢â¬ , I asked impatiently. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t answer straight away but he got there in the end. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬ ¦wasÃ¢â¬ ¦FredÃ¢â¬ ¦erÃ¢â¬ ¦.rickÃ¢â¬ , he replied. Ã¢â¬Å"How did he know Lucentio was my friend? Had he been spying on me?Ã¢â¬ I thought to myself. These were his last words before he stopped moving and died. I swore to avenge the death of my friend and that I would get Frederick back for what he did to Lucentio. I went looking for Frederick but I had no luck at all in finding him. He was probably keeping a low profile so as not to attract any attention. I asked the local people if they had seen a man dressed in a black doublet and a fur lined cloak but they had no information to provide me with. This had me so frustrated that I was about to give up my search when I came to a poorly dressed man on the street that I recognized. He was the very same vendor from ten years ago. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t think he would know, but I asked him anyway. It was just my luck that he saw him walk past a few minutes ago and he pointed me in his direction. I thanked him and I was on my way. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t long before I found him wandering through one of the alleyways. I shouted at him to stop but as soon as he turned around and saw my face he ran away quickly. But, he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get far. I caught up to him and got my breath back. When he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t expect it, I pulled out my sword and slashed at him, but I missed. This enraged me even more than I already was. He also drew his sword and tried blocking my attacks but I kept on slicing at him wildly. I was out of control. But then, he got the better of me and I was forced to the ground. I was crawling backwards and desperately trying to get up but with no success. All the while Frederick was advancing on me ready to strike. He thrust his sword toward me and I stuck my sword out in front of me with my eyes closed, fearing for the worst. I opened my eyes and nothing had happened to me. I was completely fine but Frederick on the other hand was lying on the ground motionless in a pool of blood. My sword had pierced him through his heart and he had died almost immediately. Ã¢â¬Å"What have I doneÃ¢â¬ , I was thinking, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been a complete fool not to realise that all this thirst for revenge has driven me mad and caused me to kill another human being.Ã¢â¬ I knew that I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t keep on standing there gazing at the motionless Frederick otherwise I would be caught. So I left and went home contemplating about what just happened. There was nothing left for me there in Legnago except the consequences I would have to face. This family feud caused me to cross the line and commit a felony which was not worth it at all. I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t stay there anymore I thought to myself. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be a part of this feud any longer than I already had been. I had to run away. But where could I go? Then it struck me that I could go to Verona to live with my relatives. I wanted to forget whatever had happened but I even knew that the guilt will stay with me forever. Nevertheless I packed up all my important belongings and I set off on my journey to Verona, a fresh start. How to cite Original Writing Coursework on Prince Escalus, Papers
Saturday, April 25, 2020
Why are immediate rewards more effective in inducing consumer behaviour desired by the marketer Essay Example
Why are immediate rewards more effective in inducing consumer behaviour desired by the marketer Paper Immediate rewards are categorised as product based promotions, this includes three groups; bonus packs, multi packs and free-gifts. Bonus packs are special factory packs that offer consumers more of a product at the same price (e.g. 10%, 20%, 50% extra product free) or offering a large pack for the price of the small pack. Multi packs are two or more packs banded together and offered at a reduced price; the super deal in multi pack promotions would be the BOGOF (buy one, get one free) and 3 for 2 offers. Cross promotions can be classified as an immediate reward (buy pasta sauce and get pasta free).Free-gifts can be made available in a variety of ways; the on-pack free-gift, the in-pack free-gift, the with pack free-gift, and the pack itself being the free-gift. There are also some contests such as the Walkers crisps Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½20 and Ã ¯Ã ¿Ã ½5 notes and free pack coupons giveaway in a form of a potential immediate reward as not all bags of Walkers contain these prizes. Promotions similar to the Boots Advantage Card whereby bonus points are accumulated to save money off the next purchase or a free-gift depending on how many points have been collected; (even though the procedure of collecting points may be lengthy) the procedure of redeeming the points at a moment in time can be considered as an immediate reward. Bonus packs, on-packs, in-packs, with packs and speciality containers all make products more appealing to consumers. They appear to reward them for their purchases, thereby possibly generating positive feelings toward the brand. Crossruffed premiums that consist of samples of other products made by the same manufacture may cause people to try those brands, which may result in future demand for them. Non-immediate promotions such as coupons, self liquidating premiums (SLP) and free mail ins (FMI) have minimal trade interest, coupons may be removed from the pack and misredeemed or malredeemed, they can appeal to a limited audience and have a high drop-out rate if not targeted at strong prospects. High value coupons can equal high risk of coupon abuse and are less attractive at low face values, it can easily be countered by the competition with the same or stronger reward level and redemption levels are uncertain. There is a low participation rate, they can cause difficulties of premium stock control and have minimal sales effect. We will write a custom essay sample on Why are immediate rewards more effective in inducing consumer behaviour desired by the marketer specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Why are immediate rewards more effective in inducing consumer behaviour desired by the marketer specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Why are immediate rewards more effective in inducing consumer behaviour desired by the marketer specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Unlike non-immediate promotions, immediate rewards are attractive as they present an immediate gain to the consumer at the point of purchase; it has a direct impact. The promotions make the consumer feel good about themselves; the warm tingly feeling of getting a bargain and generates a positive feeling towards the brand. The packaging is usually eye catching, visual and exciting and the perceived value is higher than the cost to provide to the consumer; these offers have considerable on-shelf impact and high visibility and are a strong trial motivator as risk to consumer is removed. They allow consumers to make up their minds on complex or expensive propositions and can draw in applicants who would have declined otherwise, a strong gift can tempt even new users. Product based offers can generate high levels of motivation and participation and stimulate purchase; these promotions are instant. In regards to the brand immediate rewards may gain display space, especially if off-pack, as extra point-of-sale material will be needed to announce the offer, they can produce high incremental sales and a good offer can make a statement about the brands qualities. It can be economical for manufactures than money-off, it adds value to the brand and some promotions require no changes to the basic packaging (multi-pack), carrier products offer added value and the carried product offer brand awareness and trial. The promotion can drive loyalty and lock in portfolio buyers and strong offers may encourage immediate multiple purchases and so drive volume. Brands want to create a positive aura about themselves, sales promotion can help enhance the qualities of the brand; as well as a product based promotion being executed, if it is tied in will a cause related promotion (e.g. every unit bought 15p will go to charity) this can help increase a positive image of the brand. According to Lenard C. et al., (1998) consumers like promotions, they provide utilitarian benefits such as monetary savings, added value, increased quality, and convenience, as well as hedonic/pleasure benefits such as entertainment, exploration, and self-expression. Diamond and Sanyal., (1990) suggests that consumers perceive deals that are framed as presenting gains (buy one get one free') as more attractive versus those that are framed as reducing losses (get 50 percent off). Inman et al., (1997) found that deals with restrictions such as Limit 2 per customer or Offer good until certain date elicit higher evaluations from consumers than the same deals without such restrictions. According to Seibert., (1997) even within diverse forms of equivalent extra product (known as bonus-pack or volume) promotions, 91 percent of surveyed consumers appeared to favour the deal when it (the identical deal) was stated as percent more free rather than percent free and units free. These results are important as they can emphasize the impact that framing of the promotional offer has on consumers deal evaluation. Many of these types of immediate reward promotions can trigger the consumer to stockpile the product, and that alone can keep them away from the market place and competitors cannot have the chance to woo these consumers into buying a rival brand. The more the consumer has the more they will utilize or devour the merchandise; their consumption level increases, consequently, they will become familiar with the brand, which can ultimately result in brand loyalty. Research conducted by Ehrenberg et al., (1994) suggests that price promotions do not generally encourage people to trial a new brand, this works in portfolio markets (frequently bought goods such as groceries, petrol, cosmetics and toiletries, etc). Immediate rewards can be seen to work in the same way as price promotions in that they can encourage consumers to switch between brands that are already in their portfolio (i.e. they have bought them in the past), accelerate purchases, stockpile the promoted product and expand overall sales. To distinguish why immediate rewards are effective through consumer perception tools such as perceptual mapping and consumer surveys are useful. To observe whether immediate rewards are effective in regards to the company, sales data, AGB market research, Nielsen marketing research and tracking devices all provide a view of whether a promotion was successful/will be successful in the future. There can be many factors effecting consumer perception; Grewal et al., (1996) found that consumer perceptions of transaction value will be greater under positive mood than under negative mood. Further more, shoppers in a positive mood are likely to attend more to the favourable side of discount offerings (e.g. obtaining products at lower costs) or they may retrieve positive toned material from their memory at the time of judgement. Consequently, even a small extra discount may add to their pleasure. (Grewal et al., (1996) model of the effects of comparative price advertising on perceptions of value and proposed mood effects on perceived transaction value are on page 10-11). Free-gifts can often be linked to pester power; Kelloggs, McDonalds, Burger King are big users of free-gift items. Pester Power is the name given to marketing techniques which encourage children to nag their parents to purchase a particular product. For instance, advertisers use famous pop stars such as S Club 7 and footballers such as David Beckham to entice children into wanting their products. Link-ups with childrens films and cartoon characters are another enormous money-spinner. In July 2002 McDonalds Happy Meal, came with a free Smurf character one of nine characters which children are encouraged to collect. Children love collecting toys and McDonalds in particular have made this a key element in encouraging children to eat their food. Therefore, in large part, understanding the childrens market necessitates knowledge of the complex inter-relationship between parents, primarily mothers, as purchasers and children as end users. Even though the children may not pay for the items, the growth in the appreciation of pester power is indicative of the fact that children, like their adult counterparts, are becoming accomplished consumers at an even younger age. In recent years, pester power has been one of the buzzwords of the children marketing industry. Harnessing its power has become a holy grail for those who believe it to be the key to parents purse strings. The shortcomings with immediate rewards are as follows: bonus packs require changes to packaging and this is not available to all brands, it may be very costly to short-run and can present shelving problems to trade, bonus packs can have drawbacks in terms of production capability, warehousing, shipping, inventory, and shelving. Some oversize containers need significant modifications in the filling process. In some cases, the bonus pack bottle may be an inch higher or the buy-one-get-one-free pack twice as big, and so will not fit on the shelf. Multi packs can also cause shelving difficulties, they may be costly to run as banding is labour intensive (especially for smaller manufacturers) and requires considerable lead-time (manufactures do not produce the normal amount of their product when banding them together, the amount decreases). Free-gifts can be potentially expensive, merchandise is subject to pilferage, if the item is missing the consumer is less likely to buy the product, i t can be difficult to identify suitable products and may affect brand image if the gift is not of an adequate quality. When stockpiling occurs companies need to ensure that there is enough of the product available to suit demand as this can result in the consumer buying a rival brand and in bad publicity for the company that can consequently effect the brand image. Additional promotion to the trade may need to be implemented in return for efficient stocking of shelves/a point of sale/extra shelving space/allowing wobblers or footprints leading to the promoted product to be used in-store; meaning more money spent by the company, the more a company wants to be noticed the more money is needed to do so. Promotions are not as profitable as when the volume of merchandise is sold normally, after a promotion is conducted it may be difficult for companies to sell their product at the regular price and quantity. If a retailer is providing an immediate reward and the manufacture disagrees with it because it may potentially damage and undermine the brand image problems may occur, such as court hearings, as happened in the past with Levi and Calvin Klein objecting to their product being sold at an inferior price at supermarket chains such as Tesco. Bonus packs are generally unappealing to consumers who do not usually buy the product (if I dont usually use margarine, why would I want an extra 6oz of the product?). Also, in many cases, consumers may not believe that they are getting extra product for their money, suspecting that the price had been raised or that the new quantity offered is actually the regular amount. Can the quotes above really reflect the truth about what consumers think, if we stop to observe a supermarket floor when the store is executing big deals such as buy-one-get-one-free (which in theory is 100% free) and the product is in the consumers portfolio, do we see the majority of consumers not buying into that product? The answer would be a strong no! Stores such as Safeway often put a limit to the amount a customer can buy because the products offered are swiftly purchased, this can be proof enough that consumers tend to be pleased of promotions and stock-up. According to Ehrenberg, (2002 e-mail) 1. If immediate rewards have big effects, they are usually up and then down again (like with promotions). Put another way, immediate reward schemes are usually too costly to sustain over time. 2. Most market changes are slow. At any one time, any effect therefore looks small. Accumulated over time the effect can be bigger. However, it is then likely to be confused by other marketing-mix inputs. Smith et al., (2000) discovered that the results for price points suggested that subjects generally preferred price promotions for higher priced categories; however, they preferred volume promotions for lower priced categories, again demonstrating the importance of transaction value. Sales promotions affect brand sales in numerous ways for instance brand switching, stock piling, purchase acceleration and category expansion. However, not each and every one of these effects need to be present for all types of sales promotions. In the case of a short-term shelf-price reduction valid only for a week, customers will have more incentive to stockpile the product as opposed to a coupon promotion with a longer validity period. Sales promotion activities are by no means going to be uniformly profitable to all players in the market place but almost all companies need to utilize sales promotions as either offensive and/or defensive tools in the never ending battle for markets, Smith et al., (2000). Companies need to weigh out their objectives and link them to the effective type of promotion right for them, what is the promotion that will achieve the factor they want? Sales promotions are unique in their ability to respond in quick, focused, and flexible ways to motivate consumer or trade or counter attack the sales promotion activities of competitors. There are many types of sales promotions, from coupons to contests and sweepstakes, refunds and sampling to continuity programs and trade deals. Blattberg and Neslin,. (1990) summarises the popular sales promotional tools on page 10. Sales promotion is all about getting the brand noticed, to build brand awareness, to induce trial of a new brand or modified brand, to retain previous customers and create brand loyalty. The greater the sample group the brand entices the bigger the number of consumers likely to stay with the brand, the longer the promotion the greater the figure of samplers, however the longer the promotion the more expensive it becomes. An integrated effort of all marketing communication tools can achieve better results for a long-term benefit for the brand, than just singular tools used.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
buy custom Human Society, Values, Beliefs and Emotions Humanities Reflection Essay Introduction Humanities mainly concentrate on the human of fields of inquiry are international relations, political theory, comparative religion, ethics, fine arts, visual arts, jurisprudence, archaeology, literature, linguistics, languages, philosophy, history and many others. Therefore, humanism is defined as a group of philosophies and ethical outlooks that accentuate the significance of human beings. This emphasis focuses mainly on human beings, both individually and collectively, on a thought that is mostly rational than on strict faith. In the framework of humanism, man is viewed as the measure of all things. Therefore, this implies that humanism respects and believes in human reason, individual liberty, essential quality of all people and the scientific method.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
What color is that dress Check your perception. The Blue-Black / White-Gold Debate There is a debateÃ raging across the internet about the color of the dress in the photo to the right. Is it blue and black? Or white and gold? I read about this debate and was skeptical. Was this some big scam? When I look at the picture I see blue and black and cant imagine it would be anything else. I decided to test this proposition my self. I was surrounded by people this past weekend at a family event, so carried around my laptop asking my relatives what color they thought the dress was. Reality Check? Of my first three subjects, my momÃ saw blue and black. So did my cousinÃ Michael. But my cousin Carol saw white and gold. The more people I asked, the more I realized that thisÃ is for real. People see the colors in this dress differently and each person is completely convinced about the rightness of his or her view. My cousin Michael was an interesting case. I showed him the picture a second time in different lighting, and he saw it as white and gold. But a minute later, he was saying it was back to black and blue. He still insisted he was right and I was playing tricks on him with the lighting on my computer. Wow. Being Right Do you think you know things like what color that dress is? I know I do.Ã My brain does not even want to consider that someone else really and truly sees it as a different color. ThatÃ dress isÃ black and blue! But many people I know and trust were right thereÃ sayingÃ with complete conviction, White and gold. This reminds me of another exercise where one person is looking at a mug from the handle side, and another is looking from the non-handle side. To one person, there is no handle. To the other, its clearly a handled mug. Heres the rub:Ã Both people are right!! And they are both stuck in a perspective. The Gift of Perspective If we could get this about other issues religion, the cleanliness of our kitchens, what it meansÃ to leave on time, [insert yourÃ issue here], imagine how much better our relationships could be. Imagine how much less we would fight over the not-important things.Ã We could be curious instead of right. We could truly be over there with the people in our lives, listening to themÃ accurately. How does this principle apply to writing? Whatever we write, whether itÃ¢â¬â¢s a blog article, an e-mail message, a book, or a resume, one person might read it one way and another person might read it completely differently. The same resume can be loved by one hiring manager and hated by another. I notice it with my e-book too: People rate How to Write a KILLER LinkedIn Profile everywhere from 5 stars to 1. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s rare to find any topic on which people agree 100%. If we can take that as a gift instead of as a point of contention, we can all grow and expand as we explore each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s perspectives. I challenge you to try this at home. Make someone right today who you are totally convinced is wrong. Who knows what might emerge from there?
Friday, February 14, 2020
Asians' Attitude toward Different Age Groups - Term Paper Example In anthropology the type of communication one uses shows how one feels about another. In the Asian continent, many countries have a very high level of respect for their elders even if they are only slightly older. They show this respect through non-verbal and verbal means. Bowing is one of the most significant non-verbal methods of showing respect to elder people in Asia. This practice has been ongoing for a long time and its integration in their culture is as old as the discovery of the community itself. In order to show trust, the bowing has to be with eyes down to the floor. In order to understand such concepts, anthropology uses certain concepts. The first concept in anthropology is human universalism. This concept tries to convince people that despite what society or race one is from, the aspect of humanity makes everyone equal. This is evident in the Asian scenario of respect to the elders. It is an inborn human trait to respect people older than someone due to their experience in life. The people may not be learned than the younger ones but their wisdom in life lessons is invaluable. Even though this concept remains trashed by many societies, the respect for elders remains universal. In Asia, bowing is a common symbol of respect across many countries. This proves the second concept of anthropology that all cultures are somehow interrelated. In order for one to understand how a culture works, one has to understand how it influences and influenced by other institutions. Respect impacts on the culture of Asians positively as it enhances love between the siblings and their elders. Bowing is a small task compared to what it accomplishes in the relationship between ancestors and their young ones. The lower one bows, the deeper the respect and trust one has for that person. In order for one to be successful, Asians in many countries believe there has to